"Английские и русские идиомы"

Автор: Рогачева Екатерина Борисовна
Должность: учитель английского языка
Учебное заведение: МБОУ гимназия №32
Населённый пункт: г.Иваново
Наименование материала: презентация
Тема: "Английские и русские идиомы"
Дата публикации: 19.09.2016







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Текстовая часть публикации

English and Russian idioms.
I. Actual significance of the problem 1. To draw young people’s attention to a rich and beautiful vocabulary of the Russian language. 2. To do our best to keep the variety and richness of our mother tongue. 3. Remind the young generation of the origin of some idioms. What seems even more actual nowadays ,as much is said that the original Russian language is becoming poorer, extinct and original Russian words and phrases are being replaced by English borrowings.
II. Aims 1. To analyze and compare Russian and English idioms in order to understand differences and similarities of the Russian and English mentality. 2. To observe close links of the language with people’s life, its(life) development and the development of the languages mentioned above. The influence of civilization on the whole language and set phrases in particular. 3. To trace the origin of some idioms.
There are a lot of Russian and English phrases bearing one and the same meaning Conclusion: Russian idioms seem to be based on simple metaphors, whereas English ones are more delicate and refined, reflect the life of high layers of society. Russian: 1. Родиться в рубашке. 2. Льёт как из ведра. 3. У семи нянек дитя без глазу. English: 1. To be born with a silver spoon in one’s mouth.(Be extremely lucky) 2. It pours cats and dogs.(It rains heavily) 3. Too many cooks spoil the broth. ( If you want a thing done well, do it yourself)
But some idioms were borrowed from one language to the other by word –for-word translation. They are called loans and the method is called a loan translation • 1. Положить все яйца в одну корзину ( Не подстраховаться ) • 2. Хвататься за соломинку • 3. Игра не стоит свеч. • 4. Запретный плод сладок. • 1. To put all eggs in one basket.(To depend completely on one idea, plan or person so, that you have and other possibilities if things go wrong.) • 2. A drawing man will catch a straw. (to grasp/ to clutch at straws), ( to try to find anything at all that will help you, give you hope in a difficult situation, when it is a likely that you will find nothing.) • 3. The game isn’t worth the candle. (old fashione; something is not worth doing, because it is too much trouble or effort, costs too much.) • 4. Forbidden fruit is sweetest ( something one wishes to get, to have, to try especially, because it is prohibited (a quotation from the Bible)
A language is a phenomenon which isn’t “stiff “or “frozen” but constantly changing as closely connected with people’s life. Both the languages reflect the changes influenced by numerous events which have contributed to the development of the societies. Russian: 1. Белый воротничок/работник в офисе. 2. Собака лает, ветер носит. 3. Белый слон. 4. Китайская грамота. 5. «Ящик» English: 1. A white collar- an office worker not doing any physical work. 2. The dogs bark but the caravan goes on. 3. A white elephant –a very expensive but useless thing. 4. To be all Greek to smb. 5. A box.(a TV-set)
Words from different spheres of life join into phrases ,thus, acquiring a figurative meaning and becoming idioms. Clothes Russian: 1. Работать, засучив рукава. 2. Командир в юбке. 3. Держи себя в руках! 4. Своя рубашка ближе к телу. 5. Встречают по одёжке, провожают по уму. English: 1. It’s time you pulled up your socks. 2. This woman wears the trousers. 3. Keep your shirt on! 4. That’s another pair of shoes. 5.Good clothes open all doors.
Food English: 1. True to one's salt . (Преданный своему хозяину.) 2. Not for all the tea in China . (Ни за какие коврижки.) 3. Half a loaf is better than no bread. (Лучше синица в руках, чем журавль в небе.) 4. One man's meat is another man's poison. (Что русскому хорошо, немцу - смерть.) 5. An apple a day keeps a doctor away Russian : 1. Вот такие пироги.(So that’s how it is) 2. Кататься как сыр в масле.(Live on the fat of the land) 3. Хлеб – соль.(Hospitable welcome) 4. Перебиваться с хлеба на воду. (Live from hand to mouth) 5. Хлеб - соль ешь, а правду режь. (Say the truth and shame the devil.)
Parts of the body Russian: 1. Души ни чаять. 2. Выше головы не прыгнешь.(you can’t jump higher than your head) 3. Выбросить из головы.(Cast from one’s mind) 4. Из рук вон.(Very poor; From bad to worse) English: 1. To be an apple of somebody’s eye. (Быть чьим-то любимчиком.) 2. I laughed my head off. (Я смеялась до смерти.) 3. The children nearly split their sides. (Дети смеялись до упаду.) 4. Break a leg! – (Good luck!) (Удачи!)
Colours Russian: 1. Паршивая овца. 2. Невинная ложь. 3. Черным по белому. 4. Ждать разрешения. 5. После дождичка в четверг. 6. Мошенник. English: 1. Black sheep. 2. White lie. 3. Black and white. 4. Wait for a green light. 5. Once in the blue moon. (Почти никогда.) 6. Black leg.
Animals • Don’t make a mountain out of a molehill . • One swallow doesn’t make a spring ( one little bird/ or little thing doesn’t symbolize something global, for example: spring.) • It would make a cat laugh. • To buy a pig in a poke. • Не раздувай из мухи слона. • Одна ласточка весны не делает. • Курам на смех. • Купить кота в мешке.
Some idioms originated due to some traditions and customs kept by people Russian: 1. Удачи! 2. Мыльная опера. English: 1. Break a leg! ( Good luck! – at the theatre, actors wished each other to stand up as long during curtain calls as nearly break a leg.) 2. Soap operas (TV serials were called so, because they were originally sponsored by soap powder giants.
Another way of appearing of idioms in the Russian and English languages is literature works. Some set phrases were once said by some famous writers , philosophers or politicians… Russian: 1. «Горе от ума» (Грибоедов) 2. «Счастливые часов не наблюдают» (Грибоедов) English: 1. All’s well that ends well (Shakespeare) 2. Gealousy is a green- eyed monster. (Shakespeare)
Certainly, Shakespeare excels his colleagues in creating pithy phrases. His quоtations are widely used as English idioms. Nobody can be sure which of them are really his creations and which of them were borrowed by the playwright from folk sayings. Some scientists even nowadays find idioms and sayings which existed long before they became Shakespeare’s quоtations . Examples: Twelfth night – «Better a witty fool than a foolish wit» («Лучше умный дурак, чем глупый мудрец»); Julius Caeser - «Cowards die many times before their deaths» («Трусы умирают много раз»); Antony and Cleopatra - «Salad days» («Пора юношеской неопытности»); Hamlet – «Something is rotten in the state of Denmark» («Подгнило что-то в датском королевстве», «Что-то неладно»)
What are idioms? (Summary) • Idioms are set word combinations which appear in a language of any nation. • According to ways of their appearance idioms can be divided into certain groups : 1)Phraseological word combinations connected with the historic past of a nation 2) Idioms reflecting traditions and customs of a country or particular layers of a society 3)Set phrases derived from different trades and occupations taken up by people. 4) Sayings borrowed from works of literature spread widely and become idioms.
Conclusion I. The analysis help us to see the differences and similarities of Russian and English ways of thinking through associations and metaphors expressed in idioms. Thus, we have an opportunity to appreciate the heritage of the two languages. So, it’s very easy to misinterpret an idiom making a word for word translation. Knowledge of set-phrases shows an advanced learner or speaker of the Russian or the English. II. We have proved close connections between everyday life of people and formation of idioms, as different inventions, realities can’t but influence the development of any languages. It’s connected with progress in various spheres of life: science, culture, fashion, etc. III. There is no denying that idioms make the Russian and English languages and everybody’s vocabulary in particular, bright, colorful, precise and various. Their usage helps people to avoid repetitions in our speech! Besides, we use them to characterize some situations or somebody’s behaviour , manners or nature precisely, as they (idioms) keep wisdom of Russian and English nations.